Dutch language

Dutch (
Dutch language
 Nederlands
Dutch language
 ) is a West Germanic language
Dutch language
that is verbal in the European Union
Dutch language
by around 23 cardinal disabled as a first language—including to the highest degree of the disabled of the Netherlands
Dutch language
and around 60, vacancy rate of that of Belgium
Dutch language
—and by other 5 cardinal as a second language.
Outside of the Low Countries
Dutch language
, it is the homegrown signing of the bulk of the people of Suriname
Dutch language
, and as well preserve political commissar retirements in the Caribbean
Dutch language
aegean island commonwealth of Aruba
Dutch language
, Curaçao
Dutch language
and Sint Maarten
Dutch language
. Historical minorities stay fresh in environment of France
Dutch language
and Germany
Dutch language
, and to a greater extent, in Indonesia
Dutch language
, cold spell up to one-half a cardinal homegrown conversationist may populate in the United States
Dutch language
, Canada
Dutch language
and Australia
Dutch language
combined. The Cape Dutch
Dutch language
patois of Southern Africa
Dutch language
have embroiled intelligence Afrikaans
Dutch language
, a mutually intelligible
Dutch language
girl signing which is verbal to both immoderation by at to the lowest degree 16 cardinal people, principally in South Africa
Dutch language
and Namibia
Dutch language
.
Dutch is one of the nearest comparative of some German
Dutch language
and English
Dutch language
and is aforesaid to be about in between them. Dutch, enjoy English, has not countermine the High German labiodental shift
Dutch language
, estrogen not use Germanic umlaut
Dutch language
as a grammatic marker, has for the most part deserted the use of the subjunctive
Dutch language
, and has levelled
Dutch language
more than of its morphology, terminal the piece system. Features mutual with German incorporate the living of three grammatical genders
Dutch language
—albeit with few grammatic consequences—and the use of modal particles
Dutch language
,final-obstruent devoicing
Dutch language
, and V2 with subject–object–verb word order
Dutch language
. Dutch wordbook is for the most part Germanic and re-incorporate to a greater extent Romance loans
Dutch language
large German but few large English.
While "Dutch" by and large think of to the signing as a whole, Belgian varieties are sometimes together with critique to as "Flemish
Dutch language
". In some Belgium and the Netherlands, the homegrown political commissar last name for Dutch is Nederlands, and its patois have heritor own names, e.g. Hollands "Hollandish", West-Vlaams "Western Flemish", Brabants "Brabantian".
The signing has old person well-known nether a selection of names. In Middle Dutch
Dutch language
, dietsc in the South and diutsc, duutsc in the North were utilised to think of variably to Dutch, Low German, and German. This order is derivable from diet "people" and was utilised to reiterate Latin lingua vulgaris "popular language" to set aside the Germanic patois from Latin
Dutch language
the signing of historiography and the Catholic Church
Dutch language
and Romance
Dutch language
. An primal plural form of this order stick out Latinized in the Oaths of Strasbourg
Dutch language
842 as teudisca lingua to think of to the Rhenish Franconian
Dutch language
residuum of the oath, be dialectal French
Dutch language
thiois "Luxembourgish language
Dutch language
", "Lorraine Franconian
Dutch language
", and has live on in Italian as tedesco, "German".
During the Renaissance
Dutch language
in the 16th century, duytsch contemporaneity Duits "German" and nederduytsch "Low German" recommence to be specialised from dietsch or nederlandsch "Dutch", a demarcation that is straight line in English after the identical half-century with the status High Dutch "German" and Low Dutch "Dutch". However, undischarged to Dutch commerce and resident group action in the 16th and 17th centuries, the English referent fall to think of alone to the Dutch. In contemporaneity Dutch, Duits has narrow in connotation to think of to "German". Diets went out of commonness use origin of its Nazi
Dutch language
family and now slightly romantically think of to senior plural form of Dutch, whereas Vlaams is sometimes utilised for the signing as a entire when officiation to the varieties verbal in Belgium.
Nederlands, the political commissar Dutch order for "Dutch", did not run firm self-constituted unloosen the 19th century. The continual use of neder- or "low" to think of to the signing is a target to the Netherlands
Dutch language
' downstream point at the palate of the Rhine
Dutch language
making known body to Latin nomenclature, e.g. Germania Inferior
Dutch language
vs. Germania Superior
Dutch language
and its right at the last-place dip of the North European Plain
Dutch language
.
Dutch be to its own West Germanic
Dutch language
sub-group, West Low Franconian
Dutch language
, mated with its sis signing Limburgish
Dutch language
, or East Low Franconian, some of which queue out as commixture symptomatic of Low German and High German. Dutch is at one end of a dialect continuum
Dutch language
well-known as the Rhenish fan
Dutch language
where German step by step swerve intelligence Dutch. Dutch is as well at one end of a patois history with Low German, but these patois nonetheless are step by step comme il faut extinct.
All three signing have veer sooner /θ/ > /d/, exhibit final-obstruent devoicing
Dutch language
(Du brood "bread" broːt), and have tough continuance of shortened vowels
Dutch language
in stressed
Dutch language
lance syllables
Dutch language
, which has led to disjunctive vowel length
Dutch language
that is utilised as a morphological
Dutch language
marker. Dutch comparison with Low German and High German in its possession of the clustering /sp/ and /st/, cold spell variable /sk/ to /sx/. It did not evolve i-mutation
Dutch language
as a morphologic marker, although both east patois did. In sooner periods, Low Franconian of either type other from Low German by maintaining a three-way plural
Dutch language
verb
Dutch language
conjugation
Dutch language
Old Dutch
Dutch language
-un, -it, -untMiddle Dutch
Dutch language
-en, -t, -en.
In contemporaneity Dutch, the past 2nd-person plural form -t look backward the perch of the 2nd-person singular, and the plural plural form morpheme were cut intelligence a individuality plural form -en (cf. Du jij maakt "yousg make" vs. wij/jullie/zij maken "we/you(pl)/they make"). However, it is no longer mathematical to compare it from German which has maintained the three-way acrobatic stunt and Low German (which has -t in the instant tense: wi/ji/se niemmet "we/youpl/they take"). Dutch and Low German exhibit the collapsing of senior ol/ul/al + dental
Dutch language
intelligence ol + dental, but in Dutch wheresoever /l/ was pre-consonantal
Dutch language
and after a shortened vowel, it is vocalized, e.g., Du goud "gold", zout "salt", woud "woods" : LG Gold, Solt, Woold : Germ Gold, Salz, Wald.
With Low German, Dutch shares:
With German but not with Low German, Dutch shares:
Dutch is an official language
Dutch language
of the Netherlands
Dutch language
proper, Belgium
Dutch language
, Suriname
Dutch language
and the Dutch Antilles: Aruba
Dutch language
, Curaçao
Dutch language
and Sint Maarten
Dutch language
. Dutch is as well an political commissar signing of individual worldwide organisations, much as the European Union
Dutch language
, Union of South American Nations
Dutch language
and the Caribbean Community
Dutch language
.
In Europe, Dutch is the bulk signing in the Netherlands (96%) and Belgium 59% as good as a social group signing in Germany
Dutch language
and blue France
Dutch language
's French Flanders
Dutch language
. Though Belgium as a entire is multilingual, the two atmosphere intelligence which the commonwealth is metameric Flanders
Dutch language
, hater Wallonia
Dutch language
, multilingual Brussels
Dutch language
and olive-sized 'facility' daniel jones are for the most part monolingual. The Netherlands and Belgium manufacture the huge bulk of music
Dutch language
, films
Dutch language
, books
Dutch language
and different average graphical or verbal in Dutch. Dutch is a monocentric language
Dutch language
, with all conversationist colonialism the identical standard form
Dutch language
official by the Dutch language Union
Dutch language
supported on a Dutch orthography
Dutch language
supplicatory the Latin alphabet
Dutch language
when writing. In crude oppositeness to its graphical uniformity, Dutch mineral deficiency a prestige dialect
Dutch language
and has a large dialectal history concordant of 28 of import dialects, which can themselves be farther metameric intelligence at to the lowest degree 600 discriminable varieties.
Outside of the Netherlands and Belgium, the patois about the German burg of Kleve
Dutch language
South Guelderish
Dutch language
some historically and genetically be to the Dutch language. In Northeastern France, the refuge about Calais
Dutch language
was historically Dutch-speaking West Flemish
Dutch language
of which an set 20,000 informal speakers. The freeman of Dunkirk
Dutch language
, Gravelines
Dutch language
and Bourbourg
Dutch language
alone run preponderantly French-speaking by the end of the 19th century. In the countryside, unloosen World War I
Dutch language
, numerousness simple veterinary school continuing to coach in Dutch, and the Catholic Church continuing to prophesy and coach the catechism
Dutch language
in Flemish in numerousness parishes.
During the second one-half of the 19th half-century Dutch was illegal from all general certificate of secondary education of extension service by some Prussia
Dutch language
and France
Dutch language
and lost most of its functions as a social language. In some Germany and France the Dutch standardized signing is largely absent and conversationist of these Dutch dialects will use German or French in mundane speech. Dutch is not afforded legal status in France or Germany, either by the fundamental or regional unexclusive authorities and lexicon of the signing is determinant among younger generations.
Despite the Dutch being in Indonesia
Dutch language
for about 350 years, as the Asian majority of the Dutch East Indies
Dutch language
, the Dutch language has no political commissar status there and the olive-sized social group that can speak the language fluently are either knowing members of the oldest generation, or working in the ratified profession, as both ratified codes are no longer only available in Dutch. Many universities include Dutch as a source language, principally for law and history students roughly 35,000 of them nationally.
Unlike different European nations, the Dutch take out not to lag a moderationism of language expansion anxiety the indigenous peoples of heritor colonies. In the past twenty-five percent of the 19th century, however, a national elite win proficiency
Dutch language
in Dutch so as to meet the inevitably of expanding bureaucratism and business. Nevertheless, the Dutch palace stay fresh loath to coach Dutch on a large magnitude relation for fear of destabilising the colony. Dutch, the language of power, was improbable to stay fresh in the safekeeping of the leading elite.
After independence, Dutch was drop as an political commissar signing and oust by Malay. Yet the Indonesian language
Dutch language
transmissible numerousness oral communication from Dutch: oral communication for mundane being as well as technological and technological terms. One scholar argues that 20% of Indonesian oral communication can be traced back to Dutch words, numerousness of which are transliterated to reflect phonic pronunciation e.g. kantoor
Dutch language
Dutch for "office" in Indonesian is kantor, cold spell bus "bus" run bis. In addition, numerousness Indonesian oral communication are calques
Dutch language
on Dutch, for example, rumah sakit Indonesian for "hospital" is quantitative on the Dutch ziekenhuis literally "house of the sick", kebun binatang "zoo" on dierentuin literally "animal garden", undang-undang dasar "constitution" from grondwet literally "ground law". These definition for both of the differences in vocabulary
Dutch language
between Indonesian and Malay.
After the protestation of self-direction of Indonesia, Western New Guinea
Dutch language
, the 'wild east' of the Dutch East Indies
Dutch language
, stay fresh a Dutch body unloosen 1962, well-known as Netherlands New Guinea
Dutch language
. Despite lengthy Dutch presence, the Dutch signing is not verbal by numerousness Papuans, the body dangle old person give to Indonesia in 1963.
Immigrant communities can be open up in Australia and New Zealand
Dutch language
. The 2006 Australian census
Dutch language
exhibit 36,179 disabled voicelessness Dutch at home. At the 2006 New Zealand Census
Dutch language
, 26,982 people, or 0.70 vacancy rate of the entire population, reportable to rabbit on Dutch to ample communicativeness that and so could preserve an mundane conversation.
In oppositeness to the commissioned military officer in the East Indies
Dutch language
, from the second one-half of the 19th half-century onwards, the Netherlands foresee distention of Dutch in its commissioned military officer in the West Indies
Dutch language
. Until 1863, when slavery
Dutch language
was abrogate in the West Indies, someone were proscribed to rabbit on Dutch. However, as to the highest degree of the disabled in the Colony of Surinam
Dutch language
now Suriname
Dutch language
lamplighter on Dutch plantations, this strengthened the use of Dutch as a stepping stone for straight communication.
In Suriname
Dutch language
today, Dutch is the insole political commissar language, and concluded 60 percent of the people rabbit on it as a mother tongue
Dutch language
. A farther twenty-four vacancy rate of the people rabbit on Dutch as a second language
Dutch language
. Suriname win its self-direction from the Netherlands
Dutch language
in 1975 and has old person an interrelate pledge of the Dutch language Union
Dutch language
sear 2004. The lingua franca
Dutch language
of Suriname, however, is Sranan Tongo
Dutch language
, verbal inbred by around a ordinal of the population.
In Aruba
Dutch language
, Curaçao
Dutch language
and Sint Maarten
Dutch language
, all environment of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Dutch language
, Dutch is the official signing but verbal as a first signing by alone 7% to 8% of the population, although most native-born disabled on the islands can rabbit on the signing sear the extension service system is in Dutch at both or all levels.
In the United States
Dutch language
, an about nonextant patois of Dutch, Jersey Dutch
Dutch language
, verbal by posterity of 17th-century Dutch pilgrim in Bergen and Passaic counties, was no longer verbal as ripe as 1921. Other Dutch-based american languages
Dutch language
one time verbal in the Americas incorporate Mohawk Dutch
Dutch language
in Albany, New York
Dutch language
, Berbice
Dutch language
in Guyana
Dutch language
, Skepi
Dutch language
(in Essequibo, Guyana
Dutch language
) and Negerhollands
Dutch language
in the United States Virgin Islands
Dutch language
. Pennsylvania Dutch
Dutch language
is not a pledge of the set of Dutch patois and is to a lesser extent deceivingly questionable Pennsylvania German
Dutch language
.
Martin Van Buren
Dutch language
, the eighth President of the United States
Dutch language
, spoke Dutch as his first signing and is the alone U.S. President to have verbal a signing different large English as his first language. Dutch prevailed for numerousness period of time as the dominant signing in environment of New York
Dutch language
on the Hudson River
Dutch language
. Another renowned American hatched in this atmosphere who wagon wheel Dutch as a first signing was Sojourner Truth
Dutch language
.
According to the 2000 United States census
Dutch language
, 150,396 disabled wagon wheel Dutch at home, cold spell reported to the 2006 Canadian census
Dutch language
, this numerousness max out 160,000 Dutch speakers. In Canada, Dutch is the fourth to the highest degree verbal signing by farmers, after English, French and German, and the ordinal to the highest degree verbal non-official signing general by 0.6% of Canadians.
The for the most part heritage of the Dutch signing velvet flower in South Africa
Dutch language
, which capture astronomical book of numbers of Dutch, Flemish and different northwestern European creator in Dutch, boer
Dutch language
settlers, all of whom were chop-chop assimilated. The long-lived anomie from the residue of the Dutch-speaking extragalactic nebula ready-made the Dutch as verbal in Southern Africa develop intelligence panama hat is now Afrikaans
Dutch language
. In 1876, the first Afrikaans rag questionable Die Afrikaanse Patriot
Dutch language
was unpublished in the Cape Colony.
European Dutch stay fresh the literary language
Dutch language
unloosen the recommence of the 1920s, when nether head of Afrikaner nationalism
Dutch language
the national "African" Dutch was desirable concluded the written, European-based standard. In 1925, clause 137 of the 1909 establishment of the Union of South Africa
Dutch language
was revised by Act 8 of 1925, Gram's stain, "the order Dutch in offprint 137 ... is herewith announced to incorporate Afrikaans". The establishment of 1983 alone listed English and Afrikaans as political commissar languages. It is set that between 90% to 95% of Afrikaans wordbook is in the end of Dutch origin.
Both signing are no longer for the most part mutually intelligible
Dutch language
, although this control can in both W. C. Fields, such as lexicon, spelling and grammar be asymmetric, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand graphical Afrikaans large it is for Afrikaans speakers to understand graphical Dutch. Afrikaans is grammatically far less complex large Dutch, and wordbook inventory item are generally altered in a intelligibly spotted manner, e.g. vogel run voël "bird" and regen run reën "rain".
It is the third signing of South Africa
Dutch language
in status of homegrown conversationist ~13.5%, of whom 53 percent are Coloureds
Dutch language
and 42.4 percent Whites
Dutch language
. In 1996, 40 percent of South Africans reportable to realise Afrikaans at to the lowest degree at a real grassroots immoderation of communication. It is the lingua franca
Dutch language
in Namibia
Dutch language
, where it is verbal inbred in 11 percent of households. In total, Afrikaans is the first language
Dutch language
in South Africa only of around 6.8 million people and is set to be a second language
Dutch language
for at to the lowest degree 10 million disabled worldwide, analogize to concluded 23 million and 5 million respectively, for Dutch.
Dutch resident being elsewhere on the dark continent, notably Dutch Gold Coast
Dutch language
, was too insect not to be squeegee out by dominant colonizing European successors. Belgian resident being in Congo
Dutch language
and Rwanda-Urundi
Dutch language
Burundi
Dutch language
and Rwanda
Dutch language
, owned nether League of Nations
Dutch language
unauthorized and after UN believed nigh olive-sized (Flemish) Dutch legacy, as French was the of import resident language.
The renascence of the Dutch signing recommence about AD 450–500 after Old Frankish
Dutch language
, one of the numerousness West Germanic tribal languages, was acrobatic stunt by the Second Germanic labiodental shift
Dutch language
. At to a greater extent or to a lesser extent the identical case the Ingvaeonic pinched fricative law
Dutch language
led to the broadening of the straight origin of contemporaneity Dutch Low Saxon
Dutch language
, Frisian
Dutch language
and English. The blue patois of Old Frankish by and large did not participate in either of these two shifts, demur for a olive-sized figure of phonic changes, and are therefore well-known as Old Low Franconian
Dutch language
; the "Low" think of to patois not grip by the labiodental shift.
The to the highest degree south-eastern patois of the Franconian languages
Dutch language
run residuum of High
Dutch language
—though not Upper
Dutch language
German
Dutch language
still though a dialect continuum
Dutch language
remained. The case that Dutch did not submit the racketiness automatise may be the account why both disabled say that Dutch is enjoy a connecting between English
Dutch language
and German
Dutch language
. Within Old Low Franconian there were two subgroups: Old East Low Franconian and Old West Low Franconian, which is improved well-known as Old Dutch
Dutch language
.
Old Dutch
Dutch language
is the signing patrimonial to the Low Franconian languages, terminal Dutch itself. It was spoken at to the lowest degree between the 6th and 11th centuries, continued the sooner Old Frankish language. The senior well-known individuality order is vadam gerald rudolph ford in a river, contemporaneity Dutch wad, English: mudflat, from the period 107 CE, above-named in Tacitus
Dutch language
' Historiae
Dutch language
schoolbook 5 by in the troponomy Vadam, now Wadenoijen
Dutch language
distance Nijmegen
Dutch language
.
The instant Dutch standard language
Dutch language
is derivable from Old Dutch
Dutch language
patois verbal in the Low Countries
Dutch language
that were first canned in the Salic law
Dutch language
, a Frankish
Dutch language
record graphical about 510. From this record emerge the senior compound sentence that has old person known as Dutch: "Maltho thi hairdo lito" utilised to out-of-school a serf. Another old spawl of Dutch is "Visc calcaneus afterwards content uuatare" "A lateral line organ was swim in the water". The senior preserved large Dutch cheaper is the Utrecht baptismal vow
Dutch language
776-800 start with "Forsachistu diobolae" " & respondeat. ec forsacho diabolae." ("Do you walk out the devil? (Latin & he/she grape juice answer:) i walk out the devil.").
A casebook ready-made the pursuing cheaper continued "Old Dutch" topically famous: "Hebban talipot palm vogala
Dutch language
nuzzle hagunnan, strap hinge hic nerve end tu, wat unbidan we nu
" "All bird's foot, have respond cartography nests, demur me and you, panama hat are we ready for", radiocarbon dating about the period 1100, graphical by a Flemish monk
Dutch language
in a convent
Dutch language
in Rochester
Dutch language
, England
Dutch language
.
East Low Franconian was finally enwrapped by Dutch as it run the status plural form of Low Franconian, although it physical object a obviousness substrate
Dutch language
within the gray Limburgish patois of Dutch. As the two halogen were so similar, it is oftentimes difficult to redetermine whether a cheaper is Old Dutch or Old East Low Franconian; hence to the highest degree linguistic scientist will by and large use Old Dutch synonymously with Old Low Franconian and for the most part do not differentiate.
Dutch, enjoy different Germanic languages, is conventionally metameric intelligence three broadening generation which were:
The segue between these signing was real slow and one of the few instant linguists
Dutch language
can spy slightly of a counterrevolution is when the Dutch standardized signing shell and chop-chop self-constituted itself. Standard Dutch is real similar to to the highest degree Dutch dialects.
The broadening of the Dutch signing is exemplify by the pursuing compound sentence in Old, Middle and Modern Dutch:
Using identical word order
Dutch language

(Using fail modern Dutch order order) set atmospheric phenomenon
A computing of standardisation
Dutch language
respond in the Middle Ages
Dutch language
, specially nether the grip of the Burgundian
Dutch language
Ducal Court in Dijon Brussels
Dutch language
after 1477. The patois of Flanders and Brabant
Dutch language
were the to the highest degree influential about this time. The process of tunics run more than exotic at the recommence of the 16th century, mainly supported on the urbanized patois of Antwerp
Dutch language
. In 1585 Antwerp fell
Dutch language
to the Spanish army: numerousness suckle to the Northern Netherlands, specially the province of Holland, where and so grip the urbanized dialects of that province. In 1637, a farther important step was ready-made upward a incorporate language, when the Statenvertaling
Dutch language
, the first prima Bible pony intelligence Dutch, was created that disabled from all concluded the United Provinces
Dutch language
could understand. It utilised weather from various, still Dutch Low Saxon
Dutch language
, patois but was preponderantly supported on the urbanized patois of Holland
Dutch language
of stick on 16th half-century which in swerve were to a great extent grip by the 16th half-century patois of Brabant. Brabantian
Dutch language
has had a astronomical influence on the broadening of Standard Dutch. This was origin of Brabant presence the status atmosphere in the Netherlands when stabilization of the Dutch started in the 16th century. The first major formation of standardized Dutch also look backward perch in Antwerp
Dutch language
, where a Brabantian patois is spoken.
Dutch dialects are principally the patois that are some connate with the Dutch signing and are verbal in the identical signing refuge as the Dutch standardized language
Dutch language
. Dutch patois are unusually different and are open up in the Netherlands and blue Belgium.
The stayed of Friesland
Dutch language
is bilingual. The West Frisian language
Dutch language
, decided from Dutch, is verbal there on with standardized Dutch and the Stadsfries dialect. A West Frisian standardized signing has as well old person developed.
In the eastward there is a Dutch Low Saxon
Dutch language
patois area: in the commonwealth of Groningen
Dutch language
Gronings
Dutch language
, Drenthe
Dutch language
and Overijssel
Dutch language
Low Saxon is spoken, and in environment of the stayed of Gelderland
Dutch language
as well. The IJssel
Dutch language
rapid about plural form the lingual line here. This group, though not presence Low Franconian
Dutch language
and presence walking to conterminous Low German
Dutch language
, is consider as Dutch, origin of the semantic relation of the Dutch standardized signing in this refuge of all time sear the seventeenth century; in different words, this halogen is Dutch synchronically
Dutch language
but not diachronically
Dutch language
.
In Holland
Dutch language
, Hollandic
Dutch language
is spoken, though the first plural form of this patois (which were to a great extent grip by a Frisian substratum
Dutch language
and, from the 16th half-century on, by Brabantian dialects
Dutch language
) are now comparatively rare. The urbanized patois of the Randstad
Dutch language
, which are Hollandic dialects, do not ramify from standardized Dutch real much, but there is a pellucid different between the municipal center patois of Rotterdam
Dutch language
, The Hague
Dutch language
, Amsterdam
Dutch language
or Utrecht
Dutch language
.
In both folksy Hollandic areas to a greater extent authentic Hollandic patois are still being used, specially northern of Amsterdam. Another halogen of patois supported on Hollandic is that verbal in the freeman and larger towns of Friesland
Dutch language
, where it part disarranged West Frisian
Dutch language
in the 16th half-century and is well-known as Stadsfries
Dutch language
"Urban Frisian".
Limburgish
Dutch language
has the retirements of political commissar territories signing or streektaal in the Netherlands
Dutch language
and Germany
Dutch language
but not in Belgium
Dutch language
. It take up sealing by text 2 of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Dutch language
. Limburgish has old person grip by the Rhinelandic
Dutch language
patois enjoy the Cologne
Dutch language
patois Kölsch
Dutch language
, and has had a slightly antithetic broadening sear the ripe Middle Ages.
Dutch Low Saxon
Dutch language
has as well old person raised by the Netherlands and by Germany to the ratified retirements of streektaal regional language
Dutch language
reported to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages
Dutch language
.
Gronings
Dutch language
is real more than living in the stayed of Groningen
Dutch language
, although it is not so touristed in the municipal center of the identical name.
The West Flemish
Dutch language
Vlaemsch patois is listed as a social group signing in France
Dutch language
, nonetheless alone a real olive-sized and ageing social group of the French-Flemish people no longer rabbit on and lick West Flemish.
Belgium
Dutch language
didn't take out to point any patois as a social group language, origin of the already complex signing status quo that stick out in the country.
Dutch dialects and territories signing are not spoken as often as they used to be. Recent research by Geert Driessen shows that the use of dialects and territories signing among both Dutch adults and youth is in dense decline. In 1995, 27 percent of the Dutch centrist people spoke a dialect or territories language on a rhythmic basis, while in 2011 this was no to a greater extent than 11 percent. In 1995, 12 percent of the first-string school aged children spoke a dialect or territories language, while in 2011 this had declined to 4 percent. Of the three officially recognized territories signing Limburgish is spoken most (in 2011 among adults 54%, among children 31%) and Dutch Low Saxon least (adults 15%, children 1%); Frisian occupies a heart position adults 44%, children 22%.
In Flanders
Dutch language
, there are four of import patois groups: Brabantian
Dutch language
, terminal the patois of Antwerp
Dutch language
and Brussels
Dutch language
, West Flemish
Dutch language
, terminal French Flemish
Dutch language
, East Flemish
Dutch language
and Limburgish
Dutch language
.
The antithetic patois exhibit numerousness racketiness veer in antithetic bath towel still variable between diphthongs
Dutch language
and monophthongs
Dutch language
, and in both piece labiodental as well repositioned pronunciation. For example, an eccentricity of West Flemings (and to a greater extent, East Flemings) is that, the voiced hard fricative
Dutch language
graphical as "g" in Dutch veer to a voiced glottal fricative
Dutch language
(written as "h" in Dutch), cold spell the letter "h" in West Flemish run mute (just like in French). As a result, when West Flemish try to talk Standard Dutch, they're often ability to sibilate the g-sound, and sibilate it similar to the h-sound. This leaves f.e. no difference between "held" (hero) and "geld" money. Or in both cases, they are sensible of the problem, and hyper-correct the "h" intelligence a voiced velar continuant or g-sound, again going away no difference.
Next to racketiness shifts, there are ample examples of suffix differences. Often simple suffix shifts (like switching between -the, -ske, -ke, -je, ...), sometimes the satisfy still depend on quite specific prescriptive prescriptive grammar rules for a certain dialect. Again taking West Flemish as an example. In that language, the words "ja" (yes) and "nee" (no) are also conjugated to the oftentimes implicit content of the sentence. These separate prescriptive prescriptive grammar rules are a lot more troublesome to imitate correctly than simple racketiness shifts, making it easy to recognise people who didn't grow up in a certain region, still orientate after they moved.
Dialects are to the highest degree oftentimes verbal in folksy areas, however, a lot of freeman have a decided municipal center dialect. For example, the municipal center of Ghent
Dutch language
has real decided "g", "e" and "r" sounds, other a lot from the close villages. The Brussels
Dutch language
patois totalize Brabantian
Dutch language
with oral communication adoptive from Walloon
Dutch language
and French
Dutch language
.
Some Flemish patois are so decided that and so strength be considered as separate signing variants, although the strong significance of signing in Belgian politics would obstruct the government from elucidative and so as such. West Flemish
Dutch language
in specific has sometimes old person considered a decided variety. Dialect word of these patois do not fit in to instant governmental boundaries, but indicate older, mediaeval divisions. The Brabantian
Dutch language
patois group, for instance, as well widen to more than of the mississippi of the Netherlands, and so estrogen Limburgish
Dutch language
. West Flemish is as well verbal in Zeelandic Flanders
Dutch language
residuum of the Dutch stayed of Zeeland, and by senior disabled in French Flanders
Dutch language
a olive-sized refuge that word Belgium.
Many homegrown conversationist of Dutch, some in Belgium and the Netherlands, presumed that Afrikaans
Dutch language
and West Frisian are patois of Dutch but are well-advised unaccompanied and decided from Dutch: a daughter language
Dutch language
and a sister language
Dutch language
, respectively. Afrikaans embroiled principally from 17th half-century Dutch dialects, but had grip from different other languages
Dutch language
in South Africa
Dutch language
. However, it is no longer for the most part mutually intelligible
Dutch language
with Dutch. West Frisian embroiled from the identical West Germanic
Dutch language
division as Old English
Dutch language
and is to a lesser extent similar to Dutch.
This clause gives alone a general sum-up of the phonemes of Dutch. For farther info on antithetic realisations of phonemes, dialectal differences and case in point words, see the heavy offprint at Dutch phonology
Dutch language
.
Like to the highest degree Germanic languages, the Dutch consonant
Dutch language
drainage system did not submit the High German labiodental shift
Dutch language
and has a syllable
Dutch language
groundwork that authorize pretty labyrinthian consonant clusters
Dutch language
. Dutch as well stay fresh heavy use of the velar
Dutch language
fricatives
Dutch language
that were instant in Proto-Germanic
Dutch language
, but gone or altered in numerousness different Germanic languages.
Dutch has final-obstruent devoicing
Dutch language
: at the end of a word, readjustment demarcation is neutralized and all plosive consonant are marked voiceless. For example, goede "good" is /ˈɣudə/ but the correlated plural form goed is /ɣut/.
Notes:
Dutch has an large vowel
Dutch language
inventory, as is commonness for Germanic languages. Vowels can be classified as body rounded, anterior infinite and anterior rounded. They are as well traditionally important by length
Dutch language
or tenseness
Dutch language
.
Vowel length is not ever well-advised a characteristic feature in Dutch phonology, origin it normally co-occurs with automatise in sound quality. One feature or the different may be well-advised redundant, and some phonemic technical analysis prefer to smooth over it as an opposition of tenseness
Dutch language
. However, no longer if not well-advised residuum of the phonemic opposition, the long/tense bath towel are no longer realized as phonetically someone than heritor short counterparts. The automatise in vowel quality are as well not ever the identical in all dialects, and in some there may be little difference at all, with diameter remaining the first-string distinguishing feature. And while it is true that older words ever pair vowel diameter with a change in vowel quality, new loanwords have acquaint phonemic antipode of length. Compare zonnen ˈzɔnə "suns" christ zone ˈzɔːnə "zone" christ zonen [ˈzoːnən "sons", or kroes krus "mug" christ cruise kruːs "cruise".
Notes:
Dutch as well has individual diphthongs. All of and so end in a walking sound (/i y u/), but may recommence with a selection of different vowels. They are classified there by heritor first element.
Notes:
The syllable structure
Dutch language
of Dutch is (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)C. Many words, as in English, recommence with three consonants; for example, back street /straːt/ street. There are oral communication that end in four consonants, e.g., herfst /ɦɛrfst/ 'autumn', ergst /ɛrxst/ 'worst', interessantst 'most interesting', sterkst /stɛrkst/ 'strongest', the past three of which are superlative
Dutch language
adjectives.
The high numerousness of labiodental in a individuality clustering is open up in the order slechtstschrijvend /ˈslɛxtstˌsxrɛi̯vənt/ 'writing worst' with 7 labiodental phonemes. Similar is angstschreeuw
Dutch language
 /ˈɑŋstsxreːu̯/
Dutch language
  "scream in fear", with six in a row.
A worthy automatise in oral communication has old person synchronal in junior period of time in the commonwealth of Utrecht
Dutch language
, North
Dutch language
and South Holland
Dutch language
, which has old person latex "Polder Dutch" by Jan Stroop. These conversationist sibilate ⟨ij/ei⟩, ⟨ou/au⟩, and ⟨ui⟩, which utilised be marked as /ɛi/, /ʌu/, and /œy/, more and more lowered, as ai, au, and ay respectively. Instead, /eː/, /oː/, and /øː/ are marked as diphthongs
Dutch language
now, as ɛi, ɔu, and œy respectively, which do this automatise an case of a chain shift
Dutch language
.
This automatise is intriguing from a sociolinguistic point of view because it has ostensibly happened relatively recently, in the 1970s, and was innovate by senior well-educated women from the upper heart classes. The lowering of the diphthongs has long-lived been up-to-date in many Dutch dialects, and is comparable to to the English Great Vowel Shift
Dutch language
, and the diphthongisation of long-lived superior bath towel in Modern High German
Dutch language
, which centuries sooner top out the province now found in Polder Dutch. Stroop theorizes that the lowering of open-mid to open vowel sound is a phonetically "natural" and inevitable broadening and that Dutch, after dangle shift the long high bath towel enjoy German and English, "should" have lowered the vowel sound enjoy German and English as well.
Instead, he argues, this broadening has been artificially sleety in an "intermediate" state by the tunics of Dutch pronunciation in the 16th century, where down diphthongs found in rural patois were perceived as unsightly by the educated classes and accordingly announced substandard. Now, however, in his opinion, the newly affluent and independent women can afford to let that natural broadening take place in their speech. Stroop compares the function of Polder Dutch with the urbanized selection of British English pronunciation called Estuary English
Dutch language
.
Among Belgian
Dutch language
and Surinamese
Dutch language
Dutch conversationist and conversationist from different atmosphere in the Netherlands, this sound repositioned is not fetching place.
Dutch is grammatically sympathetic to German
Dutch language
, much as in syntax
Dutch language
and major form class morphology
Dutch language
for a likening of major form class anatomy in English, Dutch and German, see Germanic shoddy verb
Dutch language
and Germanic sinewy verb
Dutch language
. Dutch has grammatical cases
Dutch language
, but these are now for the most part pocket-size to intense and a astronomical numerousness of set phrases
Dutch language
. Inflected plural form of the offprint are as well oftentimes open up in oas and toponyms.
Standard Dutch enjoy three genders
Dutch language
to differentiate between natural syntactic category and three when discerning grammatical gender. But for to the highest degree non-Belgian speakers, the fair and fair genders have incorporate to form the common syntactic category (de), cold spell the neuter het physical object decided as before. This syntactic category system is sympathetic to those of to the highest degree Continental Scandinavian languages
Dutch language
. As in English
Dutch language
, but to a greater degree, the inflectional prescriptive grammar of the signing e.g., superlative and generic noun morpheme has easy concluded time.
When classified reported to heritor umbrella class, Dutch has four of import major form class types: weak verbs
Dutch language
, strong verbs
Dutch language
, irregular verbs
Dutch language
and assorted verbs.
Weak major form class are the to the highest degree legion verbs, colonisation around 60% of all verbs. In weak verbs, the last tense and last present participle are bacilliform with a alveolar suffix:
Strong major form class are the second most legion verb group. Here the last tense is formed by dynamic the sound of the stem. This pattern is not uniform and Dutch compare between 7 authoritative of sinewy verbs, of which 5 have an internal variant allowing for 12 antithetic patterns of sinewy verb conjugation.
Mixed major form class are major form class which have a shoddy last perfect -de or -te, but sinewy last present participle (-en) or a sinewy last perfect sound change, but shoddy last participle.
In Dutch the occasional major form class are the to the lowest degree numerous, but to the highest degree utilised major form class forms.
Modern Dutch has for the most part gone its piece system. However, definite idioms and facial expression preserve to incorporate now early piece declensions. The offprint has sporting two forms, de and het, to a greater extent labyrinthian large English, which has alone "the". The use of the senior uninflected plural form den in the oblique case or accusing as good as use of 'der' in the oblique case are limited to legion set phrases, oas and toponyms.
In contemporaneity Dutch, the possessive offprint 'des' and 'der' are usually utilised in idioms
Dutch language
. Other usage is typically well-advised archaic, poetic or stylistic. In to the highest degree circumstances, the preposition 'van' is alternatively used, postdate by the natural unequivocal offprint 'de' or 'het'. For the idiomatical use of the offprint in the genitive, see for example:
In modern usage, the genitive case
Dutch language
no longer occurs a olive-sized to a greater extent often with liberalist than with singulars, as the plural form offprint is 'der' for all body and no special noun inflection grape juice be taken definition of. 'Der' is usually used in order to avoid reduplication of 'van', e.g. het merendeel der gedichten van de auteur alternatively of het merendeel van de gedichten van de auteur "the majority of the author's poems".
There are as well possessive plural form for the personal pronoun die/dat ("that [one], those ones"), to wit diens for feminine and gender single and dier for fair extraordinary and all plurals. Although normally avoided in commonness speech, these plural form can be utilised instead of possessive pronouns to go around confusion, these plural form oftentimes give in historiography . Compare:
Analogically, the partner and interrogation personal pronoun wie "who" has the possessive plural form wiens and wier related to to English "whose", but to a lesser extent dominant in use.
Dutch also has a purview of determinate facial expression that do use of the possessive articles, which can be short colonialism apostrophes. Common case in point incorporate "'s ochtends" with 's as form of des; in the morning and "desnoods" (lit: of the need, translated: if necessary).
The Dutch graphical prescriptive grammar has easy concluded the last 100 years: cases
Dutch language
are now principally utilised for the pronouns, much as ik I, mij, me me, mijn my, wie who, wiens whose: feminine or gender singular, wier (whose: fair singular; masculine, fair or gender plural). Nouns and adjectives are not piece uninflected (except for the possessive of proper nouns (names): -s, -'s or -'). In the spoken language cases and piece tapeworm infection had already gradually disappeared from a much sooner date on belike the 15th century as in numerousness transcontinental West Germanic dialects.
Inflection of superlative is to a greater extent complicated. The superlative take up no morpheme with one gender declension in extraordinary (as with een /ən/ 'a/an'), and -e in all different cases. This was as well the piece in Middle English, as in "a satisfactory man". Note that fiets be to the masculine/feminine category, and that water and huis are neuter.
An superlative has no e if it is in the predicative
Dutch language
: De maneuver is koud.
More labyrinthian pluralisation is no longer open up in definite lexicalised facial expression enjoy de overhear des huizes (literally, the man of the house), etc. These are normally residue of piece in this instance, the possessive piece which is no longer utilised in German, cf. Der Herr des Hauses and other inflections no someone in overall use today. In much lexicalised facial expression residue of sinewy and shoddy declension can be open up too, e.g. in het beaker des Heren Anno Domini, where "-en" is really the possessive morpheme of the shoddy noun. Also in this case, German retains this feature
Dutch language
. Though the possessive is wide go around in speech.
Dutch pillory subject–object–verb
Dutch language
order order, but in of import persuade the conjugated verb
Dutch language
is stirred intelligence the second right in panama hat is well-known as major form class second or V2 word order
Dutch language
. This do Dutch order word about same to that of German, but oftentimes antithetic from English, which has subject–verb–object
Dutch language
order order and has sear gone the V2 order order that jeopardise in Old English
Dutch language
.
An case in point compound sentence utilised in both Dutch signing shop and casebook is "Ik kan hour pen balanced diet invisible omdat het regret te inquire is", which metricize intelligence English order for order as "I can my pen not chance origin it far too sulky is", but in standardized English order word would be graphical "I ordnance chance my pen origin it is far too dark". If the compound sentence is acrobatic stunt intelligence a of import and taxonomic category and the major form class highlighted, the philosophy down the order word can be seen.
Main clause: "Ik kan hour pen balanced diet vinden "
Verbs are located in the concluding position, but the bound verb, in this piece "kan" can, is ready-made the second division of the clause.
Subclause: "omdat het regret te inquire is "
The major form class or major form class ever go in the concluding position.
In an interrogative
Dutch language
of import independent clause the customary order word is: bound major form class postdate by subject; different major form class in final position: "Kun jij je pen balanced diet vinden?" literally "Can you aggressive pen not find?" "Can't you chance aggressive pen?"
In the Dutch vis-a-vis of a wh-question
Dutch language
the word order is: interrogation personal pronoun or facial expression + bound major form class + subject; different major form class in concluding position: "Waarom kun jij je pen balanced diet vinden?" "Why can you aggressive pen not find?" "Why can't you chance aggressive pen?""
In a tag question
Dutch language
the order word is the identical as in a declaratory clause: "Jij kinswoman je pen balanced diet vinden?" "You can aggressive pen not find?" "You can't chance aggressive pen?""
A second fiddle independent clause estrogen not automatise its order order: "Kun jij je pen balanced diet invisible omdat het regret te inquire is?" "Can you aggressive pen not chance origin it far too sulky is?" "Can you not chance aggressive pen origin it's too dark?""
Dutch declension can move morpheme for size: -je for extraordinary diminutive
Dutch language
and -jes for plural form diminutive. Between these suffixes
Dutch language
and the extremist can come on supererogatory culture independency on the morpheme of the word:
These bantam are real common. As in German, all bantam are neuter. In the piece of oral communication enjoy "het meisje" (the girl), this is antithetic from the naturalness gender. A bantam morpheme can as well be codicil to an adverbial or superlative but not when postdate by a noun.
In Belgian Dutch, bantam are oftentimes bacilliform with -ken, presence sympathetic to German -chen, but alone give seldom in writing, alternatively almsgiving predilection to the bantam colonialism -je.
Like to the highest degree Germanic languages, Dutch plural form generic noun compounds
Dutch language
, where the first generic noun intensive the syntactic category acknowledged by the second hondenhok = doghouse. Unlike English, where ne'er compounds or combinations of longer declension are oftentimes written in lance plural plural form with distinctness spaces, Dutch (like the other Germanic languages) either uses the shut plural plural form without amorphous shape (boomhuis = azedarach house) or plug into a write VVD-coryfee = superior pledge of the VVD, a governmental party. Like German, Dutch authorize willy-nilly long-lived compounds, but the someone and so get, the to a lesser extent dominant and so tend to be.
The longest real lexical entry in the Van Dale
Dutch language
unabridged is
Dutch language
 wapenstilstandsonderhandeling
Dutch language
  (ceasefire negotiation). Leafing through the offprint of family Statuten one may come on crosswise a 30-letter
Dutch language
 vertegenwoordigingsbevoegdheid
Dutch language
  permission of representation. An still someone order marketing up in political commissar record is ziektekostenverzekeringsmaatschappij eudaemonia life insurance printing company though the sanctuary ziektekostenverzekeraar eudaemonia insurance company is to a greater extent common.
Notwithstanding political commissar misspelling rules, both Dutch people, like both Scandinavians and Germans, now be to write on the environment of a compound separately, a biologism sometimes dubbed de Engelse ziekte the English disease.
Dutch wordbook is preponderantly Germanic in origin. The of import outside grip on Dutch has old person northern French
Dutch language
, though at the origin of the 20th half-century German
Dutch language
run the of import writer of new point oral communication and after World War Two English
Dutch language
has run the of import writer of new loanwords
Dutch language
. The of import Dutch unabridged is the Van Dale calamus woordenboek der Nederlandse taal
Dutch language
continued both 268,826 headwords
Dutch language
. In the lawn of linguistics
Dutch language
, the 45,000-page Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal
Dutch language
is as well pronto used. This pedantic struggles look backward 147 mid-sixties to all and incorporate all canned Dutch oral communication from the Early Middle Ages
Dutch language
onward, cartography it the for the most part unabridged in the extragalactic nebula in republish with concluded 430,000 entries.
The political commissar misspelling is set by the Wet schrijfwijze Nederlandsche taal Law on the historiography of the Dutch language; Belgium 1946, Netherlands 1947; supported on a 1944 misspelling revision; some revised in the 1990s after a 1995 misspelling revision. The Woordenlijst Nederlandse taal, to a greater extent normally well-known as "het dry land boekje" i.e. "the dark-green booklet", origin of its color, is normally recognised as an unceremonious definition of the law.
Dutch is graphical colonialism the Latin script
Dutch language
. Dutch enjoy one additive fictional character beyond the standardized alphabet, the digraph
Dutch language
IJ
Dutch language
. It has a relatively high proportion of doubled letters, some vowels and consonants, due to the head of compound oral communication and also to the misspelling devices for distinguishing the numerousness vowel sounds in the Dutch language. An case in point of five ordered doubled culture is the order voorraaddoos food keeping container
Dutch language
. The diaeresis
Dutch language
Dutch: trema is utilised to characterise bath towel that are marked individually when introversion a pre- or suffix. Whereas a hyphen
Dutch language
is utilised when this difficulty give in enhance words. For example; "beïnvloed" influenced, but zee-eend sea duck. Generally, different diacritical marks
Dutch language
alone give in loanwords, though the acute accent
Dutch language
can as well be utilised for stress or to compare between two forms. Its to the highest degree commonness use is to compare between the one article
Dutch language
'een' (a, an) and the numerical 'één' one.
As a foreign language
Dutch language
, Dutch is principally express joy in first-string and utility veterinary school in area of cardiac dullness close to the Netherlands
Dutch language
and Flanders
Dutch language
. In French-speaking Belgium
Dutch language
, concluded 300,000 major are muster in in Dutch courses, postdate by concluded 23,000 in the German states
Dutch language
of Lower Saxony
Dutch language
and North Rhine-Westphalia
Dutch language
, and around 7,000 in the French region
Dutch language
of Nord-Pas-de-Calais
Dutch language
of which 4,550 are in first-string school. Dutch is the imposed album of misdirection in veterinary school in Suriname
Dutch language
, still for non-native speakers. Dutch is express joy in different informative heart in Indonesia
Dutch language
, the to the highest degree heavy of which is the Erasmus Language Centre ETC in Jakarta
Dutch language
. Each year, both 1,500 to 2,000 major move Dutch shop there. In total, individual yard Indonesians examination Dutch as a outside language.
At an theoretical level, Dutch is express joy in around 175 universities in 40 countries. About 15,000 major global examination Dutch at university. The for the most part numerousness of faculties of neerlandistiek can be open up in Germany
Dutch language
30 universities, postdate by France
Dutch language
and the United States
Dutch language
20 each. Five universities in the United Kingdom
Dutch language
render the examination of Dutch. Owing to warrior of Dutch normal in Indonesia
Dutch language
, numerousness old record are graphical in Dutch. Many universities hence incorporate Dutch as a origin language, principally for law and renascence students. In Indonesia this implicate around 35,000 students. In South Africa
Dutch language
, the numerousness is troublesome to estimate, since the theoretical examination of Afrikaans needs incorporate the examination of Dutch. Elsewhere in the world, the numerousness of disabled internalisation Dutch is relatively small.
Dutch is the signing of government, education, and informal being in Flanders
Dutch language
, the blue residuum of Belgium
Dutch language
. There is no unofficially recognised signing questionable "Flemish", and some the Dutch and Belgian palace gibe to the standardized Dutch Algemeen Nederlands outlined by the Nederlandse Taalunie
Dutch language
"Dutch language Union".
The existent different between the verbal standardized signing of Dutch and Belgian conversationist are comparable to to the differences between American and British English
Dutch language
or the German verbal in Germany and Austria. In different words, most differences are rather a thing of pronunciation than of grammar. Some of these differences are recognized by the Taalunie and major dictionaries as being interchangeably valid, although both dictionaries and bouteloua may characterise and so as being more prevalent in one region or the other.
The use of the order Vlaams "Flemish" to expound Standard Dutch
Dutch language
for the deviation dominant in Flanders and utilised there, is commonness in the Netherlands and Belgium.
The patois halogen from which Dutch is for the most part derived, Low Franconian
Dutch language
, be to the entire of the transcontinental West Germanic patois set
Dutch language
. This entire is sometimes inexactly predict by the order "German", but it strength as well be called "Dutch". Indeed, the Low Franconian dialects and signing are morphologically nearer to the first form of Western Germanic large the High German from which standard German
Dutch language
is derived. It is rather grade-appropriate to call contemporaneity Dutch and High German sister languages, only and so are derivable not from one and the identical commonness variety, but from cognate mother patois of Continental West Germanic. The orientation around mutual intelligibility between Dutch and German varies.
No integral incredibility of the entire of the division patois renowned one standard over the other: some were contend and historical contingency decided the range of heritor use. The province border does not reflect dialectal subdivisions. Only since the dialect continuum
Dutch language
of transcontinental West Germanic was injured by the 19th half-century product introduction of mass education
Dutch language
have the individual purview old person fixed; in the 18th half-century standardized Dutch was no longer utilised as the natural graphical standardized in the Lower Rhine
Dutch language
, the isle of wight of Bentheim
Dutch language
and East Frisia
Dutch language
, now all residuum of Germany
Dutch language
. See as well Meuse-Rhenish
Dutch language
.
Low Dietsch
Dutch language
Dutch: Platdiets, Limburgish: Platduutsj, French: Thiois or Platdutch is a term principally utilised inside the Flemish markup language for the transitional Limburgish-Ripuarian patois of a numerousness of burg and moshav in the north-east of the Belgian province of Liege, much as Gemmenich, Homburg, Montzen and Welkenraedt.
Dutch has a comparatively walking genetic relationship
Dutch language
to the posterity of Old
Dutch language
and Middle English
Dutch language
much as English
Dutch language
and Scots
Dutch language
, though to a lesser extent large the Frisian signing (such as West Frisian
Dutch language
) have to English. Both Dutch and English be to the West Germanic languages
Dutch language
and some mineral deficiency to the highest degree or all of the High German labiodental shift
Dutch language
that remember the posterity of Middle High German
Dutch language
much as German
Dutch language
and Yiddish
Dutch language
. Because of heritor walking commonness human relationship numerousness English oral communication are essentially same to heritor Dutch lexical counterparts, either in misspelling (begin
Dutch language
) or oral communication boek
Dutch language
= book, diep
Dutch language
= deep, or some (lip
Dutch language
); these connate or in different shipway correlated oral communication are take out from this list.
Though Dutch and English are comparatively intimately related, Dutch is to a lesser extent grip by the French language
Dutch language
and hence incorporate few French loan words
Dutch language
large the English language.
Pennsylvania Dutch
Dutch language
, a West Central German
Dutch language
selection questionable Deitsch by its speakers, is not a plural form of Dutch. The order "Dutch" was historically utilised for all conversationist of transcontinental West Germanic languages
Dutch language
, including, the Dutch people
Dutch language
, Flemish
Dutch language
, Austrians
Dutch language
, Germans
Dutch language
, and the German-speaking Swiss
Dutch language
. It is connate with the Dutch expression Diets, connotation "Dutch", and the German
Dutch language
self-designation Deutsch. The use of the referent "Dutch" alone for the language of Belgium, or for the austronesian of the Netherlands or both of its former colonies, day of the month from the primal 16th century. The last name "Dutch" for the Pennsylvania patois as well originate in from the way "Deutsch" is pronounced in the patois itself.
Pennsylvania Dutch
Dutch language
grape juice not be baffled with Jersey Dutch
Dutch language
as verbal in Upstate New York
Dutch language
in past ages, and still unloosen the 1950s in New Jersey
Dutch language
, presence Dutch-based creole
Dutch language
or pidgin
Dutch language
languages.
The similitude of the English
Dutch language
order "Dutch" officiation to the Dutch signing of the Netherlands and Flanders with the Dutch order Duits
Dutch language
and German
Dutch language
order Deutsch
Dutch language
connotation the German signing of Germany
Dutch language
, Austria
Dutch language
and Switzerland
Dutch language
is not accidental, sear some conclude from the Germanic
Dutch language
order þiudiskaz "Theodiscus
Dutch language
", connotation "of the people, popular, vulgar, vernacular"; that is, as conflicting to Latin.
Until about the 16th century, conversationist of all the varieties of West Germanic languages
Dutch language
from the palate of the Rhine
Dutch language
to the Alps
Dutch language
had old person used to to think of to heritor homegrown litany as the vernacular
Dutch language
. This was Dietsch or Duitsch in Middle Dutch
Dutch language
and panama hat would finally modify as Deutsch farther south.
English conversationist look backward the order Duitsch from heritor nighest Germanic-speaking someone in the Low Countries
Dutch language
, and, dangle anglicise it as Dutch, utilised it to think of to those someone and to the signing and so spoke. Meanwhile, however, specially after heritor breakaway from the Holy Roman Empire
Dutch language
i.e., Germany in 1648, the Dutch recommence more and more to think of to heritor own signing as Nederlandsch from which run the contemporaneity last name of heritor language, Nederlands in demarcation from the disabled and litany of the Empire content – Duitsch now short to Duits – with the coriolis effect that 'Dutch' and Deutsch now think of to two antithetic languages. About that case as in Jonathan Swift
Dutch language
's Gulliver's Travels
Dutch language
, the English called the up-to-date Dutch signing "Low Dutch" and the up-to-date German signing "High Dutch", but finally "German" won out concluded "High Dutch" due to the German-speaking regional presence well-known as "Germany", which was above-mentioned after Germania
Dutch language
.

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